Human Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock

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Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++) Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-β1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: High rates of albuminuria are observed among HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART). Though pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses are described as components of albuminuria in the general population, it is unclear how these responses are associated to albuminuria in ART-treated chronic HIV. We investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets and urine inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers to albuminuria in ART-treated HIV-infected participants. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were performed on Hawaii Aging with HIV-cardiovascular disease study cohort participants who were required at entry to be ≥40 years old and on ART ≥3 months. Monocyte subpopulations were determined in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using multi-parametric flow-cytometry. Entry random urine samples were assessed for albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine samples were measured for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers using Luminex technology. RESULTS: Among 96 HIV-infected subjects with measured UACR (87% male, 59% Caucasian, and 89% undetectable HIV RNA with median CD4 of 495.5 cells/μL), 18 patients (19%) had albuminuria. Non-classical (CD14low/+CD16++) monocytes were significantly elevated in subjects with albuminuria (p = 0.034) and were correlated to UACR (r = 0.238, p = 0.019). Elevated non-classical monocyte counts were significant predictors of worsening albuminuria, independent of traditional- and ART-associated risk factors (β = 0.539, p = 0.007). Urine TGF-β1 and collagen-IV were significantly higher in albuminuric compared to non-albuminuric participants (TGF-β1; p = 0.039 and collagen-IV; p = 0.042). Urine TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with non-classical monocyte counts (r = 0.464, p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Alterations in monocyte subpopulations and urine pro-fibrotic factors may play a role in kidney dysfunction during chronic HIV infection and warrants further study.

Authors: Mitchell BI, Byron MM, Ng RC, Chow DC, Ndhlovu LC, Shikuma CM.
Journal: PLoS One. 11(4):e0153758
Year: 2016
PubMed: Find in PubMed