Human Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock

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3. How I treat chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

Abstract

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic malignancy that may deserve specific management. Defined by a persistent peripheral blood monocytosis ≥1 × 109/L and monocytes accounting for ≥10% of the white blood cells, this aging-associated disease combines cell proliferation as a consequence of myeloid progenitor hypersensitivity to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor with myeloid cell dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis. The only curative option for CMML remains allogeneic stem cell transplantation. When transplantation is excluded, CMML is stratified into myelodysplastic (white blood cell count <13 × 109/L) and proliferative (white blood cell count ≥13 × 109/L) CMML. In the absence of poor prognostic factors, the management of myelodysplastic CMML is largely inspired from myelodysplastic syndromes, relying on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to cope with anemia, and careful monitoring and supportive care, whereas the management of proliferative CMML usually relies on cytoreductive agents such as hydroxyurea, although ongoing studies will help delineate the role of hypomethylating agents in this patient population. In the presence of excessive blasts and other poor prognostic factors, hypomethylating agents are the preferred option, even though their impact on leukemic transformation and survival has not been proved. The therapeutic choice is illustrated by 4 clinical situations among the most commonly seen. Although current therapeutic options can improve patients quality of life, they barely modify disease evolution. Improved understanding of CMML pathophysiology will hopefully lead to the exploration of novel targets that potentially would be curative.

Authors: Solary E, Itzykson R
Journal: Blood. 2017 Jul 13;130(2):126-136
Year: 2017
PubMed: Find in PubMed