Human Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock

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Soluble CD14 activates monocytic cells independently of Lipopolysaccharide

Abstract

The glycoprotein CD14 acts as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), either when anchored in the myeloid cell membrane (mCD14) or as a soluble molecule (sCD14) in serum. sCD14-LPS complexes activate cells devoid of mCD14. However, the role of sCD14 independent of LPS is unknown. Therefore, the effect of sCD14 on monocyte functions was investigated in the monocytic cell lines THP1 and Mono Mac 6 and in fresh human monocytes. Under serum-free conditions, endotoxin-free human recombinant sCD141-348 (rsCD141-348) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). The TNF- effect was stronger in THP1 cells than in Mono Mac 6 cells or monocytes. It was dose dependent, with a maximum at 1 µg/ml, and time dependent, with a maximum after 2 h. sCD14 purified from urine had the same cytokine-activating capacity. In contrast, C-terminally truncated rsCD141-152 was inactive. The rsCD14 effect was not due to LPS contamination, since it was resistant to polymyxin and lipid IVa but sensitive to heat and trypsin. The rsCD14-induced cytokine induction was blocked by preincubation of rsCD14 with a monoclonal anti-CD14 antibody that did not recognize the LPS-binding site. Release of the TNF- disappeared upon pretreatment of rsCD14 in 50% plasma or in complete, heat-inactivated or sCD14-depleted serum. Moreover, cytokine production was no longer observed when rsCD14 was pretreated with thrombocytes. The thrombocyte effect was dose and time dependent. In conclusion, sCD14 is able to activate myeloid cells, and the effect is prevented by the presence of plasma, serum, or thrombocytes.

Authors: Landmann, R., Link, S., Sansano, S., Rajacic, Z., Zimmerli, W.
Journal: Infect. Immun. 66: 2264-2271
Year: 1998
PubMed: Find in PubMed