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Evaluation of the in vitro pyrogen test system based on proinflammatory cytokine release from human monocytes: comparison with a human whole blood culture test system and with the rabbit pyrogen test

Abstract

The reliability of an in vitro pyrogen test system based on proinflammatory cytokine release from human monocytic cells was assessed by comparison with a test system based on a human whole blood culture as well as with the conventional rabbit pyrogen test. The human cells used as the pyrogen indicator cells were newly selected by subcloning of a human monocytic cell line, Mono-Mac-6. The selected cells, named MM6-CA8, responded to various pyrogens, including endotoxin, peptidoglycan (PG), Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 (SAC), and poly(I. C), with a high sensitivity and produced proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Among these cytokines, IL-6 was produced most sensitively in response to traces of the pyrogens and detected in the largest quantities in the culture medium. The cytokine-producing responses of MM6-CA8 cells correlated significantly with the responses of cultured human whole blood, which represents an ex vivo culture test system reproducing pyrogen-induced cytokine production in the human body. In terms of cytokine inducibility, the pyrogens were ranked in the order endotoxin > PG > poly (I. C) > SAC in both culture systems, a ranking which almost agreed with the ranking of their pyrogenicity as assessed by the rabbit pyrogen test. These results suggest that the in vitro responsiveness of MM6-CA8 cells to various pyrogens is highly relevant for human pyrogenic reactions. Therefore, the in vitro test system is useful and reliable for detecting the presence of materials that are pyrogenic for humans.

Authors: Nakagawa Y, Maeda H, Murai T
Journal: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9: 588-597
Year: 2002
PubMed: Find in PubMed